HOW TO PRODUCE CONCRETE
There are two ways of manufacturing concrete namely : nominal mix and design mix.
Nominal mix is used for normal construction works such as small residential buildings. Most popular nominal mix are in the proportion of 1:2:4.
Design mix concrete are those for which mix proportions are finalized based on various lab tests on cylinder or cube for its compressive strength. These tests are conducted to find suitable mix based on locally available material to obtain strength required as per structural design. A design mixed offers economy on use of materials for concrete. When the suitable mix proportions are known, then its materials are mixed in the ratio as selected.
Methods of mixing of Concrete
Two methods are used for mixing of concrete based on quantity and quality required, the suitable method of mixing is selected. The methods include: Hand Mixing and Machine Mixing.
In the hand mixing, materials are placed on a flat surface and water is added and mixed with hand tools.
In machine mixing, different types of machines are used. In this case, the materials are added in required quantity to mix and produce fresh concrete.
Once it is mixed adequately, it is transported to casting location and poured in formworks. Various
types of formworks are available which as selected based on usage.
Poured concrete is allowed to set in formworks for specified time based on type of structural member to gain sufficient strength. After removal of formwork, curing is done by various methods to make up the moisture loss due to evaporation. Hydration reaction requires moisture which is responsible for setting and strength gain. Curing is generally continued for minimum 7 days after removal of formwork.
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